Warfare


Warfare
   Warfare appeared to have been endemic in the Nile Valley during the Predynastic Period until the unification of Egypt under Narmer, who is depicted with his captives. Military expeditions are known to have taken place into Nubia, notably under Snefru. The collapse of the Old Kingdom was followed by civil wars during the First Intermediate Period until the reunification of Egypt under Mentuhtep IIof Dynasty 11. The bodies of soldiers slain during the conflict have been found buried at Thebes. During Dynasty 12, the Egyptian army conquered Nubia and built a string of fortresses to control the area. Little is known of the organization of the army during this time. The basic weapons were axes, maces, daggers, small swords, spears, and bows and arrows.
   The fall of the Middle Kingdom and the invasion of the Hyksos brought about the introduction of the chariot during the Second Intermediate Period, while the long sword is first attested during the New Kingdom. Under Dynasty 18, a more professional standing army emerged that campaigned successfully in Nubia and in the Levant under Ahmose, Thutmose II, and notably Thutmose III at the battle of Megiddo. The Satire on Tradesgives a dim view of the life of a soldier. The rise of theHittitesled to reversals that Ramesses II of Dynasty 19 failed to stem at the battle of Kadesh. During the Third Intermediate Period, there were bouts of civil war followed by the conquest by Assyria. The rise of Dynasty 26 brought some Egyptian victories in the Levant under Nekau II and in Nubia under Psamtik II, but Egypt was defeated by the Babylonians and later conquered by Persia. During the Ptolemaic Period, there were several attempts to annex Syria, but the state was weakened by civil wars and finally annexed by Rome. Roman rule was generally peaceful, but as it weakened, Egypt was invaded by the forces of Septimia Zenobia of Palmyra; later the Sassanian Persians; and finally the Arabs, who overran Egypt in 642 AD.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

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